The Children and War Foundation is a charity registered in Norway (Ref:882 577 252) and recognised by HMRC (Ref; NO2) to receive Gift Aid on donations from UK taxpayers


Below are published studies on research we have supported on the effects and consequences of war, warlike situations and disasters on children and their families. In addition, our manuals have also been used in at least two master’s and one doctoral study. Articles featuring measures we have developed have also been included.

About the Children and War Foundation

Yule, W., Dyregrov, A., Raundalen, M., & Smith, P. (2013). Children and War: Past and present. The work of the Children and War Foundation. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4: 18424 –


Publications using the CAW Manuals and Measures

Barron, I., Abdullah, G. & Smith, P. (2012). Randomized control trial of a CBT Trauma Recovery program in Palestinian schools. Journal of Loss and Trauma. 8:4, 306-321, DOI:10.1080/15325024.2012.688712

Barron, I., Dyregrov, A., Abdallah, G., & Jindal-Snape, D. (2015). Complicated Grief in Palestinian Children and Adolescents, Journal of Child and Adolescent Behaviour, 3:213. doi:10.4172/2375-4494.1000213

Barron, I., Mitchell, D., & Yule, W. (2017). Pilot study of a group-based psychosocial trauma recovery program in secure accommodation in Scotland. Journal of Family Violence. doi:10.1007/s10896-017-9921-8.

Bronner, M. B., Beer, R., Jozine van Zelm van Eldik, M., Grootenhuis, M. A., & Last, B. F. (2009). Reducing acute stress in a 16-year old using trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12(3), 170–174. doi:10.1080/17518420902858975

Caspani, G., Burcher, G. C., Garralda, M. E., Cooper, M., Pierce, C. M., Als, L. C., & Nadel, S. (2018). Inflammation and psychopathology in children following PICU admission: an exploratory study. Evidence-Based Mental Health, ebmental-2018-300027.

Chen, Y., Shen, W. W., Gao, K., Lam, C. S., Chang, W. C., & Deng, H. (2014). Effectiveness RCT of a CBT intervention for youths who lost parents in the Sichuan, China, earthquake. Psychiatric Services, 65, 259–262.

Chen Z, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Liu Y, Dyregrov A (2012) Structure of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) with Children and Adolescents Exposed to Debris Flood. PLoS ONE 7(8): e41741. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041741

Colville, G., & Pierce, C. (2012). Patterns of post-traumatic stress symptoms in families after paediatric intensive care. Intensive Care Medicine, 38(9), 1523–1531. doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2612-2

Dawson, K. S., Joscelyne, A., Meijer, C., Tampubolon, A., Steel, Z., & Bryant, R. A. (2014). Predictors of Chronic Posttraumatic Response in Muslim Children Following Natural Disaster. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, No Pagination Specified. doi:10.1037/a0037140

Deeba, F., Rapee, R. M., & Prvan, T. (2014). Psychometric properties of the Children’s Revised Impact of Events Scale (CRIES) with Bangladeshi children and adolescents. PeerJ, 2, e536. doi:10.7717/peerj.536

Derivois, D., Cénat, J. M., Joseph, N. E., Karray, A., & Chahraoui, K. (2017). Prevalence and determinants of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression symptoms in street children survivors of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, four years after. Child Abuse & Neglect, 67, 174–181.

Diehle, J., de Roos, C., Boer, F., & Lindauer, R. J. L. (2013). A cross-cultural validation of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents in a Dutch population. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.19896

Dillen, L., Fontaine, J. R. J., & Verhofstadt-Deneve, L. (2009). Confirming the distinctiveness of complicated grief from depression and anxiety. Death Studies, 33, 437–461.

Dow, B. L., Kenardy, J. A., Le Brocque, R. M., & Long, D. A. (2012). The utility of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale in screening for concurrent PTSD following admission to intensive care. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(5), 602–605. doi:10.1002/jts.21742

Ehntholt, K., Smith, P. & Yule, W. (2005).  School-based CBT group intervention for refugee children who have experienced war-related trauma. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 10, 235-250.

Fayyad, J., Cordahi-Tabet, C., Yeretzian, J., Salamoun, M., Najm, C., & Karam, E. G. (2017). Resilience-promoting factors in war-exposed adolescents: an epidemiologic study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(2), 191–200.

Gedevanishvili, M.(Ed.) (2010) Child and War Trauma – Intervention and Treatment. Georgian Association for Mental Health, Tiblisi, Georgia.

Giannopoulo, I., Dikaiakou, A., & Yule, W. (2006). Cognitive–behavioural group intervention for PTSD symptoms in children following the Athens 1999 earthquake: A pilot study. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 11, 543–553.

Giannopoulo, I., Smith, P., Ecker, C., Strouthos, M., Dikaiakou, A., & Yule, W. (2006). Factor structure of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) with children exposed to earthquake. Personality and Individual Differences, 40 (5), 1027 – 1037.

Giannopoulo, I., Strouthos, M., Smith, P., Dikaiakou, A., Galanopoulou, V. & Yule, W. (2006). Post traumatic stress reactions of children exposed to the Athens 1999 earthquake. European Psychiatry, 21 (3), 160-166.

Gudarzi, S. S., & Yasamy, M. T. (2007). Evolving epidemiology of the psychological conditions following Bam Earthquake. Paper presented at the 10th European Conference on Traumatic Stress, Opatija, Croatia, June.

Gušić, S., Malešević, A., Cardeña, E., Bengtsson, H., & Søndergaard, H. P. (2018). “I feel like I do not exist:” A study of dissociative experiences among war-traumatized refugee youth. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 10(5), 542–550.

Hassan, F. U., Singh, G., & Sekar, K. (2018). Children’s reactions to flood disaster in Kashmir. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 414.

Kalantari, M., Yule, W., Dyregrov, A., Neshatdoost, H. & Ahmadi, S.J. (2012). Efficacy of Writing for Recovery on Traumatic Grief Symptoms of Afghani Refugee Bereaved Adolescents. OMEGA — Journal of Death and Dying, 65(2), 139–150.

Kieffer-Kristensen, R., Siersma, V. D., & Teasdale, T. W. (2013). Family matters: parental-acquired brain injury and child functioning. NeuroRehabilitation, 32(1), 59–68. doi:10.3233/NRE-130823

Lange-Nielsen, I. I., Kolltveit, S., Thabet, A. A. M., Backer Johnsen, T. C. Dyregrov, A., Pallesen, S., & Laberg, J. C. Short-Term Effects of a Writing Intervention among Adolescents in Gaza. Journal of Loss and Trauma.

Lange-Nielsen, I. I., Kolltveit, S., Thabet, A. A. M., Backer Johnsen, T. C. Dyregrov, A., Pallesen, S., & Laberg, J. C.  Risk factors of PTSD, anxiety and depression among adolescents in Gaza. Journal of Traumatic Stress.

Lau, J. T. F., Yeung, N. C. Y., Yu, X., Zhang, J., Mak, W. W. S., Lui, W. W. S., & Zhang, J. (2013). Validation of the Chinese version of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) among Chinese adolescents in the aftermath of the Sichuan Earthquake in 2008. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54(1), 83–90. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.06.007

Ma, X., Liu, X., Hu, X., Qiu, C., Wang, Y., Huang, Y., … Li, T. (2011). Risk indicators for post-traumatic stress disorder in adolescents exposed to the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Psychiatry Research, 189(3), 385–391. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2010.12.016

Morina, N, von Lersner, U., & Prigerson, H. G.  (2011). War and Bereavement: Consequences for Mental and Physical Distress. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22140. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022140. Epub 2011 Jul 12.

Oh, E. A., Park, E. J., Lee, S.-H., & Bae, S.-M. (2014). Validation of the Korean Version of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: The Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 12(2), 149–156. doi:10.9758/cpn.2014.12.2.149

Papadatou, D., Bellali, T., Tselepi, K., & Giannopoulou, I. (2017). Adolescents’ trajectory through peer loss after a road traffic accident. Death Studies, 0(ja), null.

Papadatou, D., Giannopoulou, I., Bitsakou, P., Bellali, T., Talias, M. A., & Tselepi, K. (2012). Adolescents’ reactions after a wildfire disaster in Greece. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 1–7.

Panter-Brick, C., Grimon, M.-P., & Eggerman, M. (2014). Caregiver-child mental health: a prospective study in conflict and refugee settings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 55(4), 313–327. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12167

Papageorgiou, V., Frangou-Garunovic, A., Iordanidou, R., Yule, W., Smith, P. & Vostanis, P. (2000) War trauma and psychopathology in Bosnian refugee children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 84-90.

Pekkarinen, K. (2007). Psychoeducative trauma-focused group intervention for sexually abused boys. University of Tampere.

Perrin, S., Meiser-Stedman, R. & Smith, P. (2005) The Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES): Validity as a screening instrument for PTSD. Behavioural and Cognitive Therapy, 33 (4), 487-498.

Pityaratstian, N., Piyasil, V., Ketumarn, P., Sitdhiraksa, N., Ularntinon, S., & Pariwatcharakul, P. (2015). Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Tsunami in Thailand. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 43(05), 549–561.

Piyasil, V., Ketumarn, P., Prubrukarn, R., Pacharakaew, S., Dumrongphol, H., Rungsri, S., … Chatchavalitsakul, W. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children at one year after the tsunami disaster in Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, 91 Suppl 3, S15–20.

Piyasil, V., Ketuman, P., Plubrukarn, R., Jotipanut, V., Tanprasert, S., Aowjinda, S., & Thaeeromanophap, S. (2007). Post traumatic stress disorder in children after tsunami disaster in Thailand: 2 years follow-up. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, 90(11), 2370–2376.

Piyasil, V., Ketumarn, P., Prubrukarn, R., Ularntinon, S., Sitdhiraksa, N., Pithayaratsathien, N., … Sanguanpanich, N. (2011). Post-traumatic stress disorder in children after the tsunami disaster in Thailand: a 5-year follow-up. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet, 94 Suppl 3, S138–144.

Qouta, S. R., Palosaari, E., Diab, M., & Punamäki, R. L. (2012). Intervention effectiveness among war-affected children: A cluster randomized controlled trial on improving mental health. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 288–298.

Raknes, S., Dyregrov, K., Pallesen, S., Hoffart, A., Stormyren, S., & Haugland, B. S. M. (2017). A pilot study of a low-threshold, low-intensity cognitive behavioral intervention for traumatized adolescents. Scandinavian Psychologist, 4, e8.

Sahin, N. H., Batigün, A. D., & Yilmaz, B. (2007). Psychological symptoms of Turkish children and adolescents after the 1999 earthquake: exposure, gender, location, and time duration. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 335–345.

Salari, R., Malekian, C., Linck, L., Kristiansson, R., & Sarkadi, A. (2017). Screening for PTSD symptoms in unaccompanied refugee minors: a test of the CRIES-8 questionnaire in routine care. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 1–7. doi: 10.1177/1403494817715516

Shooshtary, M. H., Panaghi, L., & Moghadam, J. (2008). Outcome of cognitive behavioral therapy in adolescents after natural disaster. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 466–472.

Smith, P., Perrin, S., Yule, W. & Rabe-Hesketh, S. (2001) War exposure and maternal reactions in the psychological adjustment of children from Bosnia-Hercegovina. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 395-404.

Smith, P., Perrin, S., Dyregrov, A. & Yule, W. (2003) Principal components analysis of the impact of event scale with children in war. Personality and Individual Differences, 34 (2), 315-322.

Stæhr, M. A. (2001). Psykoedukation med Kosovo albanske flyktningebarn. Psyke og Logos, 22, 127-146.

Verlinden, E., van Laar, Y. L., van Meijel, E. P. M., Opmeer, B. C., Beer, R., de Roos, C., … Lindauer, R. J. L. (2014). A Parental Tool to Screen for Posttraumatic Stress in Children: First Psychometric Results. Journal of Traumatic Stress. doi:10.1002/jts.21929

Verlinden, E., van Meijel, E. P. M., Opmeer, B. C., Beer, R., de Roos, C., Bicanic, I. A. E., … Lindauer, R. J. L. (2014). Characteristics of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale in a clinically referred Dutch sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(3), 338–344. doi:10.1002/jts.21910

Zhang, N., Zhang, Y., Wu, K., Zhu, Z., & Dyregrov, A. (2011) Factor Structure of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale among Children and Adolescents Survived the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52, 236–241.